Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact combat sport that allows both striking and grappling, both standing and on the ground, using techniques from other combat sports and martial arts.

Most 'traditional' martial arts have a specific focus and these arts may be trained to improve in that area. Popular disciplines of each type include:

    Stand-up: Boxing, Kickboxing, Muay Thai, Karate, Taekwondo, Combat Sambo and Sanshou are trained to improve stand-up striking.

    Clinch: Freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling, Judo, Sambo, Sanshou and Jujutsu are trained to improve clinching, takedowns and throws, while Muay Thai is trained to improve the striking aspect of the clinch.

    Ground: Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, Judo, Sambo, Submission wrestling and other arts are trained to improve ground control and position, as well as to achieve submission holds, and defend against them.